What are the hazards associated with confined spaces?
What are the hazards associated with confined spaces?
The hazards associated confined spaces include:
- Toxic Atmosphere. A toxic atmosphere may cause various acute effects, including impairment of judgement, unconsciousness and death.
- Oxygen Deficiency.
- Oxygen Enrichment.
- Flammable or Explosive Atmospheres.
- Flowing Liquid or Free Flowing Solids.
- Excessive Heat.
Which of the following chemicals found in a confined space is most likely to cause an explosion?
A. Failing to identify hazards and take precautions causes thousands of serious injuries, and sometimes deaths, in confined spaces. A. Anything that could burn or explode (e.g., gasoline, methane, dust) is more likely to do so in a confined space.
Which of the following activities may cause an asphyxiating atmosphere in a confined space?
Asphyxiating Atmospheres Reduction of oxygen in a confined space may be the result of either consumption or displacement. The consumption of oxygen takes place during combustion of flammable substances, as in welding, heating, cutting, and brazing.
What might be a sign of carbon monoxide in a confined space?
Large amounts of CO can overcome you in minutes without warning — causing you to lose consciousness and suffocate. Besides tightness across the chest, initial symptoms of CO poisoning may include headache, fatigue, dizziness, drowsiness, or nausea.
What route does carbon monoxide enter the body?
Carbon monoxide enters the body via inhalation and is diffused across the alveolar membrane with nearly the same ease as oxygen (O2). Carbon monoxide is first dissolved in blood, but is quickly bound to haemoglobin (Hb) to form COHb, which is measured as the percentage of haemoglobin so bound.
What is the Vsepr shape of CO?
double bonds are placed on opposite sides of the carbon atom. The VSEPR theory therefore predicts that CO2 will be a linear molecule, just like BeF2, with a bond angle of 180o. The Lewis structure of the carbonate ion also suggests a total of four pairs of valence electrons on the central atom.
What is the formula for carbon tetrachloride?
Can you still buy carbon tetrachloride?
Contrary to popular myth, it isn’t “banned” (at least in small quantities for research use) – you can still buy it from the chemical companies. Carbon tetrachloride can be a touchy subject.
Can carbon tetrachloride dissolve in water?
What is the major danger from carbon tetrachloride?
Exposure to high concentrations of carbon tetrachloride (including vapor) can affect the central nervous system and degenerate the liver and kidneys, and prolonged exposure may lead to coma or death. Chronic exposure to carbon tetrachloride can cause liver and kidney damage and could result in cancer.
How is carbon tetrachloride poisoning treated?
Recent investigations have demonstrated a potential role for hyperoxia and hyperbaric oxygen as therapeutic interventions for CCl4 poisoning. Elevated oxygen concentrations in vitro and in vivo reduce lipid peroxidation and hepatotoxicity.
How do you neutralize carbon tetrachloride?
Carbon tetrachloride is best neutralized with a modified Fenton’s reagent solution. Perform this process outside or in a fumehood to avoid aerosolizing carbon tet, which is toxic and carcinogenic. A more accessible method involves the use of copper(II) acetate.
What is carbon tetrachloride used for today?
Carbon tetrachloride has been produced in large quantities to make refrigeration fluid and propellants for aerosol cans. Since many refrigerants and aerosol propellants have been found to affect the earth’s ozone layer, the production of these chemicals is being phased out.
How does CCl4 damage the liver?
Briefly, CCl4 can induce liver damage through the formation of reactive free radicals that can bind covalently to cellular macromolecules forming nucleic acid, protein and lipid adducts; through the induction of hypomethylated ribosomal RNA, resulting in inhibition of protein synthesis; and finally, CCl4 can affect …
What does carbon tetrachloride smell like?
Carbon tetrachloride is a man-made clear liquid with a strong, sweet odor that smells like chloroform. As a volatile organic compound (VOC), carbon tetrachloride easily vaporizes.
What products contain carbon tetrachloride?
What kinds of products may use it?
- Paints and coatings.
- Adhesives and sealants.
- Industrial adhesives and tapes.
- Degreasers and cleaners.
- Paint remover.
What is the last year that carbon tetrachloride can be produced?
The regulation called for reduction to 15% of 1989 production levels by 1995 and a complete phase-out of carbon tetrachloride production for non-feedstock uses by 2000.
Why Carbon tetrachloride is a liquid but does not conduct electricity?
Carbon tetrachloride is a liquid and does not conduct electricity because it is a covalent compound and there no free ions present and contain only molecules.
Why does carbon tetrachloride dissolve in oil?
As a result, carbon tetrachloride acts like a nonpolar molecule and dissolves oils.
Why is iodine soluble in CCl4 and not in water?
Answer. Answer: Iodine is more soluble in CCl4 but less in H2O because Iodine is nonpolar and CCl4 is also non-polar, so like dissolve in like whereas water is polar so iodine is less soluble in H2O.
What type of solvent would be needed to remove an oil spot?
What does oil dissolve?
Oils and fats not have any polar part and so for them to dissolve in water they would have to break some of water’s hydrogen bonds. Water will not do this so the oil is forced to stay separate from the water.
Is oil soluble in water Yes or no?
Water is not very attracted to the oil and so does not dissolve it. Oil is nonpolar and is not attracted to the water in vinegar, so it will not dissolve. Note: Students should understand that polar molecules, like water, attract other polar molecules but they do not attract nonpolar molecules, like oil.