What is an organophosphate nerve agent?

What is an organophosphate nerve agent?

Organophosphate Nerve Agents [e.g. Sarin (GB), Soman (GD), Tabun (GA), VX] are rapidly acting and highly toxic. These auto-injectors contain Pralidoxime Chloride and Atropine and are approved by the FDA for use for the treatment of chemical nerve agent and insecticide poisoning.

How do nerve agents affect the body?

Generally, all nerve agents are highly toxic and fast acting. When a person is exposed to a nerve agent, the nerve agent, upon entering the body, inhibits the normal actions of acetylcholinesterase; a chemical within the body whose normal function it is to break down the chemical acetylcholine.

What is a severe symptom of a nerve agent?

Nerve Agent Specific Triage Severe symptoms – these include unconsciousness, convulsions, apnea, and flaccid paralysis. Mild/ Moderate symptoms – these include localized swelling, muscle fasciculations, nausea and vomiting, weakness, shortness of breath.

What does organophosphate do to the nervous system?

Nerve agents are chemical warfare agents that have the same mechanism of action as OP organophosphate pesticides insecticides. They are potent inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase . Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase leads , thereby leading to an accumulation of acetylcholine in the central and peripheral nervous system.

What happens in organophosphate poisoning?

Organophosphate poisoning is poisoning due to organophosphates (OPs). Organophosphates are used as insecticides, medications, and nerve agents. Symptoms include increased saliva and tear production, diarrhea, vomiting, small pupils, sweating, muscle tremors, and confusion.

What causes organophosphate poisoning?

You can also get organophosphate poisoning by consuming contaminated food or water. The most common unintentional exposure routes are through breathing and contact with the skin. People who intentionally expose themselves to organophosphates tend to inhale and ingest it. These concentrated, high doses are often fatal.

How do you test for organophosphate poisoning?

Therefore, the most commonly used test to confirm acute organophosphate poisoning is measurement of plasma cholinesterase activity. Plasma cholinesterase levels usually decline to less than 50% of the normal value before any symptoms of poisoning are observed.

How do you reverse organophosphate poisoning?

The mainstays of medical therapy in organophosphate (OP) poisoning include atropine, pralidoxime (2-PAM), and benzodiazepines (eg, diazepam). Initial management must focus on adequate use of atropine.

How long do organophosphates persist in the body?

Symptoms begin to emerge within 24–96 hours after removal from exposure. Symptoms, which include weakness of the proximal muscles of the limbs and neck, can persist for up to 6 weeks.

Are organophosphates reversible?

Organophosphates (OPs) are a group of phosphoric acid ester compounds that upon binding to AChE are hydrolyzed, producing phosphorylation of the AChE active site resulting in irreversible inactivation of AChE.

Is organophosphate poisoning reversible?

Since many of these effects are reversed by atropine, early and appropriate medical attention is vital. In developing countries, where OP poisoning is common, quick access to medical care is more problematic than early recognition.

Why Atropine is given in OP poisoning?

Atropine is administered intravenously to restore adequate cardiorespiratory function rapidly – a process often termed ‘atropinzation’. It is used to reverse bradycardia and improve systolic blood pressure to greater than 80 mmHg.

What is atropine the antidote for?

Atropine and pralidoxime is a combination medicine used as an antidote to treat poisoning by a pesticide (insect spray) or a chemical that interferes with the central nervous system, such as nerve gas.

What is the drug of choice for organophosphate poisoning?

The definitive treatment for organophosphate poisoning is atropine, which competes with acetylcholine at the muscarinic receptors. The initial dose for adults is 2 to 5 mg IV or 0.05 mg/kg IV for children until reaching the adult dose.

Is atropine a poison?

Side effects In overdoses, atropine is poisonous. Atropine is sometimes added to potentially addictive drugs, particularly antidiarrhea opioid drugs such as diphenoxylate or difenoxin, wherein the secretion-reducing effects of the atropine can also aid the antidiarrhea effects.

What class of drug is organophosphate?


Drug Drug Description
Phosmet Phosmet is a phthalimide-derived organophosphate. It is a non-specific insecticide. It is mainly used on apple trees to control codling moths. It is also used on other fruit crops, ornamentals,…

Which drug is used in insecticide poisoning?

Drugs used to treat Organophosphate Poisoning

Drug name Rating Rx/OTC
View information about atropine atropine Rate Rx

What happens when you inhale too much insecticide?

Many insecticides can cause poisoning after being swallowed, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. Symptoms may include eye tearing, coughing, heart problems, and breathing difficulties.

How bad are pesticides for humans?

Pesticides and human health: Pesticides can cause short-term adverse health effects, called acute effects, as well as chronic adverse effects that can occur months or years after exposure. Examples of acute health effects include stinging eyes, rashes, blisters, blindness, nausea, dizziness, diarrhea and death.

What do pesticides smell like?

Many common pesticide breakdown products contain sulfur, which has a particularly bad smell. Pesticides typically contain several ingredients, any one of which may produce a sickening odor. All odors represent an exposure to a chemical. The chemical you smell may not be the pesticide active ingredient itself.

Is it OK to smell pesticide?

Smelling a pesticide doesn’t necessarily mean something is wrong. Conversely, failing to smell a pesticide does not necessarily mean you are safe. Some chemicals have no odor, but are still lethal, while other odors can be strong and harmless. These will not smell unless there is a problem.

How can you protect yourself from pesticides?

Wear work clothing that protects your body from pesticide residues, such as long-sleeved shirts, long pants, shoes, socks, and hats. Make sure to wear gloves made from nitrile, butyl, or neoprene. Never wear leather or fabric gloves because they absorb pesticides.

Can you spray vinegar in the air?

How to Use Vinegar as an Air Freshener. White vinegar is acetic acid, and it works to neutralize alkaline odors. To use it as an air freshener, find a misting spray bottle or atomizer. You want a fine mist as it will produce tinier droplets with more surface area to remove the odor-causing molecules from the air.