What caused the toxic mini tsunami and the spread of toxic sludge in Hungary?

What caused the toxic mini tsunami and the spread of toxic sludge in Hungary?

PRAGUE — The Hungarian government declared a state of emergency in several towns on Tuesday, a day after a reservoir at an alumina refining plant in Ajka burst its banks, unleashing a flood of caustic red sludge that killed at least four people and injured more than 120, government officials said.

Where did the red mud in Hungary come from?

The sludge is a by-product from the early stage of aluminium production, which leaked from storage reservoirs. As part of the process, bauxite, the raw material, is taken out of the ground and washed with sodium hydroxide.

What causes red sludge?

Red mud, formally termed bauxite residue, is an industrial waste generated during the processing of bauxite into alumina using the Bayer process. It is composed of various oxide compounds, including the iron oxides which give its red colour.

How toxic is red mud?

It can be slightly radioactive if the original bauxite contained radioactive minerals. The mud also has a high pH because of the sodium hydroxide solution used in the refining process. The base is strong enough to kill plant and animal life, and to cause burns and damage to airways if the fumes are breathed.

How is red mud removed?

Red mud consists of ferric oxide, sand etc. left after bauxite dissolves in NaOH forming sodium aluminate and is removed by filtration.

Is bauxite toxic?

The extraction of alumina from bauxite produces a highly toxic residue, termed bauxite refinery residue (BRR) or red mud. The toxicity of this material is due to chemical and biological effects of high pH, alkalinity, electrical conductivity (EC), and Na(+) and Al(3+) concentrations.

What is red mud good for?

Red mud can be used as a constructional/building material in bricks, blocks, light weight aggregates, roofing tiles, glass ceramics, cement industry as cements and special cements, and concrete industry.

What is red mud in Bayer’s process?

Red Mud is a by-product produced during the Bayer process of refining of bauxite to produce aluminum (2 tons of red mud remains after production of 1 ton of aluminum). It contains metallic oxides. The red color results from iron oxide (~60% of its mass).

Where is bauxite found?

Bauxite is typically found in topsoil located in various tropical and subtropical regions. The ore is acquired through environmentally responsible strip-mining operations. Bauxite reserves are most plentiful in Africa, Oceania and South America.

What is red mud pond?

Odisha villagers oppose Nalco’s new red mud pond fearing impact on farmland. Red mud, also known as bauxite residue, is an industrial waste generated during the processing of bauxite into alumina (the Bayer process) and is composed of various oxide compounds, including iron oxides which give it the red colour.

How does red mud affect the environment?

A waste by product of the Bayer process for producing al oxide from the bauxite ore, red mud contains toxic heavy metals and its high alkalinity makes it extremely corrosive and damaging to soil and life forms, presenting a massive problem for disposal.

How does mud affect the environment?

The high alkalinity of Ajka mud favors oxidation of soluble Cr by air oxygen. Although the concentrations of Cr(VI) are moderate, leaching of highly mobile hexavalent Cr may represent a hazard, in particular to the aquatic environment and ground water.

What is a red mud lake in Jamaica?

And red mud contains iron oxide, aluminium oxide, silicon dioxide, calcium oxide (quick lime), titanium dioxide, and sodium oxide. Toxic red mud is the detritus of this process. Effluent from lakes and ponds. Jamaica has a number of red mud ‘lakes’ whose waste contains the same properties as the one in Hungary.

What is cryolite used for?

It is used as a solvent for bauxite in the electrolytic production of aluminum and has various other metallurgical applications, and it is used in the glass and enamel industries, in bonded abrasives as a filler, and in the manufacture of insecticides. A large amount of synthetic cryolite is made from fluorite.

Is cryolite extinct?

Cryolite is something of an enigma among minerals. It is rare, and its only significant deposit is located on the remote coast of Greenland. And it is the only mineral that has ever been mined to commercial extinction.

Why is Aluminium mixed with cryolite?

The use of molten cryolite as a solvent reduces some of the energy costs involved in extracting aluminium by allowing the ions in aluminium oxide to move freely at a lower temperature.

Is cryolite toxic?

Cryolite is considered a moderate irritant based on eye irritation studies and classified in Toxicity Category IV for acute oral exposure, acute inhalation and skin irritation. Cryolite has been classified as a Group “D” chemical, “not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity”.

What is cryolite glass?

Cryolite glass is a high-quality special glass made exclusively for the production of ocular prostheses. The name is derived from the cryolite mineral that gives the glass its typical white colouration.

What is the name of sodium Aluminium fluoride?


PubChem CID 16693908
Structure Find Similar Structures
Chemical Safety Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary (LCSS) Datasheet
Molecular Formula Na3AlF6 or AlF6Na3
Synonyms CRYOLITE Sodium hexafluoroaluminate 13775-53-6 Aluminum sodium fluoride 15096-52-3 More…

What is in sodium fluoride?

NaF is prepared by neutralizing hydrofluoric acid or hexafluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6), both byproducts of the reaction of fluorapatite (Ca5(PO4)3F) from phosphate rock during the production of superphosphate fertilizer. Neutralizing agents include sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate.

Which toothpaste is fluoride free?

Best Budget: Hello Oral Care Antiplaque + Whitening Fluoride Free Toothpaste. Hello thoughtfully formulated this natural toothpaste with only the best ingredients like soothing aloe vera, stevia, and a silica blend that works together to clean and whiten the teeth.

Which type of fluoride is best?

stannous fluoride

Does stannous fluoride kill good bacteria?

But stannous fluoride has a major advantage over its more common cousin, Papas says, because it’s also antimicrobial: It kills bacteria in the mouth by interfering with the microbes’ metabolic processes, of which cavity-causing acid is the main byproduct. Fewer bacteria mean less acid.

Can stannous fluoride reverse cavities?

Stannous fluoride also has the ability to remineralize enamel. Typically, this remineralization effect is limited to cavities that are in their earliest stages. We often call this “arresting” the decay or stopping it.

How do you kill bacteria in your teeth?

Oils such as eucalyptol, menthol, and tea tree, can help kill bacteria in your mouth. This keeps your gums from getting inflamed. You’ll find toothpaste and mouthwash with these ingredients. Xylitol, an alcohol used in place of sugar, may help limit your tooth decay, Shi says.

What kills bacteria naturally?

Seven best natural antibiotics

  1. Garlic. Cultures across the world have long recognized garlic for its preventive and curative powers.
  2. Honey. Since the time of Aristotle, honey has been used as an ointment that helps wounds to heal and prevents or draws out infection.
  3. Ginger.
  4. Echinacea.
  5. Goldenseal.
  6. Clove.
  7. Oregano.

Does lemon kill bacteria in mouth?

To deal with the problem, drink a few glasses of lemon water throughout the day, and swish each mouthful around before swallowing. The acid in the lemon juice will kill off the bacteria, leaving your mouth free of the bad smell.