What does a high interleukin 2 receptor mean?

What does a high interleukin 2 receptor mean?

The serum soluble interleukin 2 receptor (sIL2R) level is elevated in patients with most types of lymphoid neoplasms, and is also elevated in patients with solid tumors or reactive conditions, such as severe inflammation.

What does IL-2 receptor do?

The IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) system is a well-characterized lymphokine receptor system that plays a central role in the induction of immune responses. High-affinity IL-2R complexes are expressed on activated lymphoid cells.

What is the purpose of secreting interleukin 2?

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is one of a family of polypeptides that mediate interactions between leukocytes. It was initially called T-cell growth factor. It stimulates proliferation and enhances function of other T-cells, natural killer (NK) cells and B-cells.

Which cells have IL-2 receptors?

IL-2 is a 4-bundle α-helical protein of 15 kDa predominately produced by antigen-activated T cells that binds to a high-affinity receptor consisting of three subunits, IL-2Rα (CD25), IL-2Rβ (CD122), and γc (CD132), that are readily found on Treg cells and recently antigen-activated T lymphocytes.

What autoimmune diseases does high levels interleukin-2 receptor effect soluble serum?

Our experience regarding serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) measurement as a marker of lymphocyte activation consists of patients with autoimmune disease: 37 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 23 with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), 74 with inflammatory bowel disease and six with Wegener’s granulomatosis ( …

What is IL-2R alpha CD25 soluble?

Introduction. The interleukin (IL)-2 receptor (IL-2R) α-chain (CD25) is being shed upon immune activation. Increased levels of soluble (s)IL-2R, therefore, are considered as an indication of an on-going immune response which could be used to monitor immune-mediated diseases.

What are CD25 cells?

Induced regulatory T (iTreg) cells (CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+) are suppressive cells involved in tolerance. iTreg cells have been shown to suppress T cell proliferation and experimental autoimmune diseases. These cells include Treg17 cells.

What is Interleukin used for?

interleukin (IL), any of a group of naturally occurring proteins that mediate communication between cells. Interleukins regulate cell growth, differentiation, and motility. They are particularly important in stimulating immune responses, such as inflammation.

What is the function of IL-2 in the immune response?

IL-2 enhances activation-induced cell death (AICD). IL-2 also promotes the differentiation of T cells into effector T cells and into memory T cells when the initial T cell is also stimulated by an antigen, thus helping the body fight off infections.

Is IL-2 pro or anti inflammatory?

IL-2 is a proinflammatory cytokine that is secreted by Th-1 cells, and it effectively participates in the activation of T cells to produce the cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ); IL-2 can also enhance the 3 cytolytic activity of natural killer cells (NK) [5,6].

Is CD25 a receptor?

Interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain (also called CD25) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL2RA gene. The interleukin 2 (IL2) receptor alpha (IL2RA) and beta (IL2RB) chains, together with the common gamma chain (IL2RG), constitute the high-affinity IL2 receptor.

What is soluble interleukin?

The soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R, sIL2R, sTAC, sCD25) is a reliable biomarker for disease activity in inflammatory disorders such as sarcoidosis.

What is the role of CD25 in the immune system?

CD25 (α chain of the high-affinity IL-2 receptor) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder due to mutations in the IL2RA gene (see Table 41.6 ). T regulatory cells constitutively express CD25 and respond to IL-2 generated by T cells during an immune response for their immunoregulatory functions.

What are the subunits of the IL-2 receptor?

IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) has three subunits (Figure 6-2): α (CD25), β (CD122), and γc (CD132, c = “common”; a shared chain with five other cytokine receptors: IL-4R, IL-7R, IL-9R, IL-15R, and IL-21R). Alpha chain (alias: Tac antigen or p55) of human receptor is encoded on chromosome 10p14-15 by the gene IL2RA.

What happens to T cells that express CD25?

T regulatory cells constitutively express CD25 and respond to IL-2 generated by T cells during an immune response for their immunoregulatory functions. CD25 deficiency results in a syndrome similar to IPEX with severe enteropathy, diabetes mellitus, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, eczema, and lymphoproliferation.

Where is the interleukin-2 receptor located in the body?

IL-2 receptor. The interleukin-2 receptor ( IL-2R) is a heterotrimeric protein expressed on the surface of certain immune cells, such as lymphocytes, that binds and responds to a cytokine called IL-2 .