What does PGC 1 alpha do?
What does PGC 1 alpha do?
PGC-1alpha stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis and promotes the remodeling of muscle tissue to a fiber-type composition that is metabolically more oxidative and less glycolytic in nature, and it participates in the regulation of both carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Is PGC 1 alpha a protein?
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PPARGC1A gene. PGC-1α is also the primary regulator of liver gluconeogenesis, inducing increased gene expression for gluconeogeneis.
What is the role of PGC 1α in mitochondrial biogenesis and how does it work?
In particular, PGC-1α regulates transcription of the gene coding mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), a gene required for mitochondrial biogenesis, which mirrors the changing levels of mtDNA in the cell and plays a crucial role in mtDNA maintenance22.
What does PPAR alpha do?
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha is a ligand-activated transcriptional factor that belongs to the family of nuclear receptors. PPAR-alpha regulates the expression of genes involved in fatty acid beta-oxidation and is a major regulator of energy homeostasis.
What stimulates PGC1a?
Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that the mechanism for this effect involves liver X receptor α (LXRα) coactivation that stimulates PGC-1α binding to the liver X receptor-responsive element (LXRE) in FAS promoter.
What does PGC stand for?
|PGC||Public Governance Committee (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development)|
|PGC||Potassium Gold Cyanide|
|PGC||Process Gas Chromatography|
|PGC||Plan Général de Coordination (French: General Coordination Plan)|
What does NRF1 stand for?
NRF1 (Nuclear Respiratory Factor 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with NRF1 include Skin Carcinoma In Situ and Oncocytoma. Among its related pathways are Regulation of lipid metabolism by Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) and Mitochondrial Gene Expression.
What activates PGC 1alpha?
PGC-1α was originally found to be activated in brown fat and muscle cells on cold exposure (see Figure 1). Cold temperatures are sensed by the sympathetic nervous system through the β3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) (4, 26, 27), leading to enhanced cAMP signaling and the activation of protein kinase A (PKA).
What is the purpose of mitochondrial biogenesis?
Mitochondrial biogenesis increases metabolic enzymes for glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation and ultimately a greater mitochondrial metabolic capacity. However, depending on the energy substrates available and the REDOX state of the cell, the cell may increase or decrease the number and size of mitochondria.
How do PPAR-alpha agonists work?
PPARγ agonists promote adipocyte differentiation, and they promote FFA uptake and storage in subcutaneous adipose rather than visceral adipose tissue. This reduces FFA levels, with associated reductions in insulin resistance.
What is PPAR-alpha agonist?
PPAR-alpha agonists PPARα (alpha) is the main target of fibrate drugs, a class of amphipathic carboxylic acids (clofibrate, gemfibrozil, ciprofibrate, bezafibrate, and fenofibrate). They were originally indicated for cholesterol disorders and more recently for disorders that feature high triglycerides.
Why is mitochondrial biogenesis important?
Mitochondrial biogenesis helps the cell to renew the mitochondrial network and, consequently, to improve mitochondrial function, slowing down the cascade of damage caused by mitochondrial dysfunction (one of the nine hallmarks of aging).
Where is the PGC-1α gene located in the cell?
[Modified from Ref. 23 .] The PGC-1α gene is located on chromosome 5 in mice (chromosome 4 in humans) and encodes a protein containing 797 (mouse) or 798 amino acids (human). PGC-1α has two putative nuclear localization signals and is located in the cell nucleus ( 49 ).
What is the function of PGC-1α in mitochondrial metabolism?
Function. PGC-1α is a transcriptional coactivator that regulates the genes involved in energy metabolism. It is the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. This protein interacts with the nuclear receptor PPAR-γ, which permits the interaction of this protein with multiple transcription factors.
How does endurance exercise activate the PGC-1α gene?
Endurance exercise has been shown to activate the PGC-1α gene in human skeletal muscle. Exercise-induced PGC-1α in skeletal muscle increases autophagy and unfolded protein response. PGC-1α protein may be also involved in controlling blood pressure, regulating cellular cholesterol homoeostasis, and the development of obesity.
Which is a protein encoded in the PPARGC1A gene?
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PPARGC1A gene.