What is the origin of pertussis?
What is the origin of pertussis?
Pertussis, or whooping cough, is an acute infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Outbreaks of pertussis were first described in the 16th century, and the organism was first isolated in 1906.
Where does Bordetella pertussis live?
Pertussis, more commonly known as whooping cough, is caused by a bacterium (germ), Bordetella pertussis, that lives in the mouth, nose and throat. The germ is highly contagious and is easily spread from person-to-person.
What kingdom does Bordetella pertussis belong to?
Bordetella pertussis is a Gram-negative, aerobic, pathogenic, encapsulated coccobacillus of the genus Bordetella, and the causative agent of pertussis or whooping cough….
What animal did whooping cough come from?
Mice infected intracerebrally have been the most widely used animal model for pertussis. To achieve this model, anesthetized mice are injected with various numbers of organisms, in some cases after immunization with bacteria or bacterial products (usually given intraperitoneally).
Was whooping cough a pandemic?
In 2015, pertussis resulted in 58,700 deaths – down from 138,000 deaths in 1990. Outbreaks of the disease were first described in the 16th century. The bacterium that causes the infection was discovered in 1906. The pertussis vaccine became available in the 1940s.
What does Bordetella pertussis do to the body?
Bordetella pertussis causes whooping cough (pertussis), an acute respiratory infection marked by severe, spasmodic coughing episodes during the paroxysmal phase. Leukocytosis with lymphocytosis is also common during this phase of the illness. Dangerous complications are bronchopneumonia and acute encephalopathy.
What is the best specimen to detect Bordetella pertussis?
Identifying which strains of B. pertussis are causing disease is of public health importance. It is best for you to obtain a culture from nasopharyngeal (NP) specimens collected during the first 2 weeks of cough. This is when viable bacteria are still present in the nasopharynx.
What does a positive pertussis test mean?
A positive PCR test means that genetic material (i.e., DNA) from B. pertussis was detected in your specimen, indicating that you have been infected. However, the PCR test may also be positive with other Bordetella species.
What antibiotic is used for pertussis?
Macrolides erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin are preferred for the treatment of pertussis in persons 1 month of age and older.
What happens if pertussis is left untreated?
If left untreated, whooping cough can be a serious infection that progresses from the throat and windpipe into a lung infection (pertussis pneumonia). Younger patients may need to be hospitalised, and one in 200 children with whooping cough will die from the infection.
How do you get rid of Bordetella pertussis?
Several antibiotics are available to treat pertussis. The most popular are azithromycin, clarithromycin and erythromycin. If you have had pertussis for three weeks or more, antibiotics will not be prescribed because the bacteria are already gone from your body.
What is the most common complication of pertussis?
The most common complications in another study of adults with pertussis were:
- Weight loss.
- Urinary incontinence.
- Rib fractures from severe coughing.
Who is at the highest risk of a pertussis infection?
Babies younger than 1 year old are most at risk for serious complications from pertussis. Pregnant women are not at increased risk for serious disease.
When should you suspect pertussis?
When to suspect pertussis Pertussis should be suspected in any patient with a cough illness with no or mild fever, particularly if cough has persisted for more than one week. Additional key signs and symptoms include: Paroxysmal cough and/or post‐tussive vomiting or whoop.
Do you feel sick with whooping cough?
In general, whooping cough starts off like a common cold. Symptoms can include runny nose, low-grade fever, tiredness, and a mild or occasional cough. Over time, coughing spells become more severe. Coughing may last for several weeks, sometimes 10 weeks or longer.
How is pertussis diagnosed?
There are several tests to confirm whooping cough. Your doctor can swab inside your nose and/or throat. A lab will check the swab for whooping cough bacteria. Your doctor also may want to get a blood sample or take a chest X-ray.
How long does pertussis cough last?
Whooping cough can last up to 10 weeks and can lead to pneumonia and other complications. The symptoms of whooping cough may look like other medical conditions. Always consult your health care provider for a diagnosis.
Is whooping cough going around 2020?
In 2021, 19 pertussis cases were reported in 9 counties. Between November 2020 and April 2021, 27 cases were reported, an 83% decrease compared to November 2018 to April 2019 (n=152 cases).
Can you get pertussis if you’ve been vaccinated?
Although the vaccines for whooping cough — DTaP and Tdap — are effective, the protection they provide decreases over time. Because of this, you can still get whooping cough even if you’ve been vaccinated.
What is a heart cough?
As the lungs become congested, due to CHF, excess fluid can start to leak into the air sacs (alveoli). Coughing is the body’s natural response to this airway blockage, cuing you to clear the bronchial passages in attempt to relieve the congestion. Enter: cardiac coughing.
What is GERD cough like?
Chronic coughing. Constant throat-clearing. Trouble swallowing. Feeling like something is “stuck” in the back of your throat.
Why is it called the 100 day cough?
The 100 days cough, also commonly known as the whooping cough, takes its name from the heavy wheezing sounds you make when trying to breathe in between coughs.
What causes post viral cough?
Post-viral coughs are usually caused by viral respiratory infection, such as: flu. common cold. bronchitis.
Where is whooping cough most common in the world?
While Bordetella pertussis circulates worldwide, disease rates are highest among young children in countries where vaccination coverage is low, primarily in the developing world. In developed countries, the incidence of pertussis is highest among unvaccinated babies and increases again among teens.
What is good to suppress a cough?
Honey is a time-honored remedy for a sore throat. According to one study , it can also relieve coughs more effectively than OTC medications that contain dextromethorphan (DM), a cough suppressant. You can create your own remedy at home by mixing up to 2 teaspoons of honey with herbal tea or warm water and lemon.