What is the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis?

What is the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis?

Atherosclerosis is the pathologic process of lipid accumulation, scarring, and inflammation in the vascular wall, particularly the subendothelial (intimal) space of arteries, leading to vascular wall thickening, luminal stenosis, calcification, and in some cases thrombosis.

What are the three forms of arteriosclerosis?

There are three recognized types of arteriosclerosis: atherosclerosis, arteriolosclerosis, and Monckeberg medial calcific sclerosis.

What are the 6 stages of atherosclerosis?

Atherogenesis can be divided into five key steps, which are 1) endothelial dysfunction, 2) formation of lipid layer or fatty streak within the intima, 3) migration of leukocytes and smooth muscle cells into the vessel wall, 4) foam cell formation and 5) degradation of extracellular matrix.

What are 8 risk factors of CAD?

Risk factors for coronary artery disease include:

  • Age. Getting older increases your risk of damaged and narrowed arteries.
  • Sex. Men are generally at greater risk of coronary artery disease.
  • Family history.
  • Smoking.
  • High blood pressure.
  • High blood cholesterol levels.
  • Diabetes.
  • Overweight or obesity.

What is the first step in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis?

Lipid retention is the first step in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis which is followed by chronic inflammation at susceptible sites in the walls of the major arteries lead to fatty streaks, which then progress to fibroatheromas which are fibrous in nature (Table 1) [5,6].

What occurs during arteriosclerosis?

Arteriosclerosis occurs when the blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrients from your heart to the rest of your body (arteries) become thick and stiff — sometimes restricting blood flow to your organs and tissues.

What are the different types of arteriosclerosis?

The three current types of arteriosclerosis include:

  • Atherosclerosis: In this type, the large arteries are hardened and narrowed.
  • Moenckeberg medial calcific sclerosis: The hardening of small to medium-sized arteries.
  • Arteriolosclerosis: The calcification of small arteries.

What is atherosclerosis and its types?

Atherosclerosis is a specific type of arteriosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is the buildup of fats, cholesterol and other substances in and on your artery walls. This buildup is called plaque. The plaque can cause your arteries to narrow, blocking blood flow. The plaque can also burst, leading to a blood clot.

What are the different types of arteries?

There are two main types of arteries found in the body: (1) the elastic arteries, and (2) the muscular arteries. Muscular arteries include the anatomically named arteries like the brachial artery, the radial artery, and the femoral artery, for example.

What are hazards of atherosclerosis?

Atherosclerosis is the narrowing and blocking of the arteries. If not treated properly this could cause a patient to have: a heart attack; stroke; damage to the heart, brain and other extremities; and even death.

What are consequences of atherosclerosis?

The consequence of atherosclerosis depends on which arteries are affected by the hardening process. Atherosclerosis in the heart causes angina and heart attacks, the first sign of which is normally severe chest pain. Atherosclerosis in the arteries supplying the brain can cause strokes.

What are the symptoms of atherosclerotic disease?

The common symptoms of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease include: Chest pain. Shortness of breath. Weakness and tiredness. Dizziness. palpitations. Leg swelling and edema . Weight gain.

What is the impact of arteriosclerosis?

The impact of arteriosclerosis is the inefficient blood flow. This disease usually happens in elderly people, and refers to the walls of the arteries hardening and thickening. Naturally, after this happens, blood cannot flow through arteries as fast as it used to when the arteries weren’t sick.