What type of agent is anthrax?

What type of agent is anthrax?

B. anthracis spores can be used as a biological weapon. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) classifies agents with recognized bioterrorism potential into three categories: A, B and C. Anthrax is classified as a Category A agent.

What kind of biological agent is anthrax 1 point?

Anthrax. Anthrax is an acute infectious disease caused by a spore-forming bacterium called Bacillus anthracis. It is generally acquired following contact with anthrax-infected animals or anthrax-contaminated animal products.

Which type of weapon is anthrax?

Anthrax is an effective biological weapon because the infectious agent is the spore form of the organism, which can be stored in a dry, concentrated form for decades. Spores can be released into the air where they may be inhaled to cause a lung infection, the most severe form of anthrax in humans.

Where is anthrax naturally found?

Anthrax is most common in agricultural regions of Central and South America, sub-Saharan Africa, central and southwestern Asia, southern and eastern Europe, and the Caribbean. Anthrax is rare in the United States, but sporadic outbreaks do occur in wild and domestic grazing animals such as cattle or deer.

Is anthrax a powder?

Cases of human anthrax are rare in the U.S., but occur more commonly in developing countries. Very rarely, anthrax spores have been released intentionally, in the form of a fine powder, to cause harm (bioterrorism). People can become infected with anthrax by getting the spores in their bodies.

How is anthrax transmitted from animals to humans?

How is the disease transmitted? Anthrax usually does not typically spread from animal to animal or human to human. When anthrax spores are ingested, inhaled or enter the body through skin abrasions or cuts, they can germinate, multiply and produce toxin. Insects can transmit the bacterium between animals.

What happens if you touch anthrax?

If your skin comes into contact with anthrax, you may get a small, raised sore that’s itchy. It usually looks like an insect bite. The sore quickly develops into a blister. It then becomes a skin ulcer with a black center.

When was anthrax a big deal?

The 2001 anthrax attacks, also known as Amerithrax (a blend of “America” and “anthrax”, from its FBI case name), occurred in the United States over the course of several weeks beginning on September 18, 2001, one week after the September 11 terrorist attacks.

How is anthrax stored?

After production and purification, anthrax spores can be stored in a dry form which remains viable for decades. Spores may survive in the water, soil and on surface for several years. Inhalation of spores causes inhalational anthrax which is the most dangerous form of disease.

Is anthrax a WMD?

Weaponized anthrax is, and will remain, a serious threat in the hands of psychopaths, terrorists, and malevolent regimes (16–18). But, unlike nuclear WMD, anthrax WMD are defensible. The challenge to science is to develop anthrax vaccines or antidotes that can be made available to every human being.

Who uses anthrax?

Anthrax can be contracted in laboratory accidents or by handling infected animals, their wool, or their hides. It has also been used in biological warfare agents and by terrorists to intentionally infect as exemplified by the 2001 anthrax attacks.

Can anthrax airborne?

Inhalation anthrax is the most serious and rare form of human anthrax. Breathing in airborne spores may lead to inhalation anthrax.

How is anthrax used in bio terrorism?

A biological attack, or bioterrorism, is the intentional release of viruses, bacteria, or other germs that can sicken or kill people, livestock, or crops. Bacillus anthracis, the bacteria that causes anthrax, is one of the most likely agents to be used in a biological attack.

What is anthrax powder made of?

The powder in the letters addressed to Senate Majority Leader Tom Daschle and Sen. Patrick J. Leahy was made of virtually pure anthrax spores, the tough, dormant form of the Bacillus anthracis bacteria, scientists say. The powder contained about 1 trillion spores per gram, close to the theoretical limit of purity.

What does anthrax look like?

Cutaneous Anthrax *The characteristic rash of anthrax looks like pink, itchy bumps that occur at the site where B. anthracis comes into contact with scratched or otherwise open skin. The pink bumps progress to blisters, which further progress to open sores with a black base (called an eschar).

How is anthrax treated in humans?

All types of anthrax infection can be treated with antibiotics, including intravenous antibiotics (medicine given through the vein). If someone has symptoms of anthrax, it’s important to get medical care as quickly as possible to have the best chances of a full recovery.

What antibiotics treat anthrax?

The standard treatment for anthrax is an antibiotic such as ciprofloxacin (Cipro), doxycycline (Vibramycin) or levofloxacin.

How is anthrax treated in animals?

Management of anthrax in livestock includes quarantine of the affected herd, removal of the herd from the contaminated pasture (if possible), vaccination of healthy livestock, treatment of livestock with clinical signs of disease, disposal of contaminated carcasses (preferably by burning), and incineration of bedding …

Can you prevent anthrax?

Anthrax is rare, and most people will never be exposed to it. There is a vaccine licensed to prevent anthrax, but it is only recommended for routine use in certain groups of at-risk adults (for example, some members of the military and laboratory workers).