When was the endoplasmic reticulum discovered?

When was the endoplasmic reticulum discovered?

Discovery of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER): It was discovered independently by Porter (1945) and Thompson (1945). The name was given by Porter in 1953. Endoplasmic reticulum is a 3-dimensional, complicated and interconnected syncrri of membrane-lined channels that run through the cytoplasm.

Why is the endoplasmic reticulum located near the nucleus?

The proximity of the rough ER to the cell nucleus gives the ER unique control over protein processing. The rough ER is able to rapidly send signals to the nucleus when problems in protein synthesis and folding occur and thereby influences the overall rate of protein translation.

Why is the endoplasmic reticulum the most important organelle?

Obviously, Rough ER is the best and most important organelle in the cell. It reads the DNA which reads the code which allows the ribosomes to make proteins, and without proteins the cell would not be able to work. So, without Rough ER, animal and plant cells would be useless and die.

What organelle is located close to the endoplasmic reticulum?

Golgi apparatus

What is the difference between ER and Golgi apparatus?

Golgi bodies or Golgi apparatus are an arrangement of few fluid-filled dishes whereas ER is a network of tubules and vesicles. Furthermore, Golgi apparatus sorts, modifies, and delivers the components in a cell whereas ER is more of a structurally aiding organelle for metabolic activities.

What does the Golgi apparatus in a cell do?

The Golgi apparatus transports and modifies proteins in eukaryotic cells. How have scientists studied dynamic protein movements through the Golgi? The Golgi apparatus is the central organelle mediating protein and lipid transport within the eukaryotic cell.

What is the role of Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum?

The Golgi apparatus and ER are key organelles needed for protein synthesis. The ER modifies and folds proteins, and the Golgi packages them for transport.

What happens if Golgi apparatus is defective?

Without a Golgi apparatus, there would be no lysosomes in a cell. Subsequently, the cell would not be able to digest or break down the materials left over from protein creation. This would create a lot of excess junk within the cell. If this happened, the cell wouldn’t be able to live for very long.

How do the Golgi apparatus and nucleus work together?

The Golgi apparatus is found close to the nucleus of the cell, where it modifies proteins that have been delivered in transport vesicles from the RER. It is also involved in the transport of lipids around the cell. Pieces of the Golgi membrane pinch off to form vesicles that transport molecules around the cell.

What cells are channel proteins found in?

A channel protein is a special arrangement of amino acids which embeds in the cell membrane, providing a hydrophilic passageway for water and small, polar ions. Like all transport proteins, each channel protein has a size and shape which excludes all but the most specific molecules.

What charge are channel proteins?

Two charges that are the same, positive/ positive or negative/negative, will repel each other. That’s how channels use charge to select which molecules go through. The inside of the channel will actually have a charge that is opposite of the molecule that it wants to let through.

What is the difference between carrier proteins and channel proteins?

Unlike channel proteins which only transport substances through membranes passively, carrier proteins can transport ions and molecules either passively through facilitated diffusion, or via secondary active transport. These carrier proteins have receptors that bind to a specific molecule (substrate) needing transport.

Why do we need both channel and carrier proteins?

Channel proteins allow substances to flow through them freely, while carrier proteins have binding sites for specific atoms and molecules.

Do carrier proteins work against diffusion?

Some carrier proteins facilitate diffusion, transporting compounds down a concentration gradient, while others are integrated into an energy-requiring active transport system for transport of substances against a concentration gradient.