# Which best supports the claim that the argument in the last three sentences of paragraph one is valid?

## Which best supports the claim that the argument in the last three sentences of paragraph one is valid?

The correct answer is option “B”: The argument is valid if the premise can be determined to be true and the conclusion follows that premise. For a valid argument, the conclusion must logically follow from the premises.

## Which best identifies the information that would be used to determine if the argument is sound?

Which BEST identifies the information that would be used to determine if the argument is sound? In order for a deductive argument to be sound, it must not only be valid, but the premises must be true as well.

What is an example of modus tollens?

Modus Tollens: “If A is true, then B is true. B is not true. Therefore, A is not true.”

### What is an example of modus Ponens?

An example of an argument that fits the form modus ponens: If today is Tuesday, then John will go to work. Today is Tuesday. An argument can be valid but nonetheless unsound if one or more premises are false; if an argument is valid and all the premises are true, then the argument is sound.

### What is modus tollens rule?

Modus tollens is a valid argument form in propositional calculus in which and are propositions. If implies , and is false, then. is false. Also known as an indirect proof or a proof by contrapositive. For example, if being the king implies having a crown, not having a crown implies not being the king.

How do you prove modus tollens?

Modus tollens takes the form of “If P, then Q. Not Q. Therefore, not P.” It is an application of the general truth that if a statement is true, then so is its contrapositive. The form shows that inference from P implies Q to the negation of Q implies the negation of P is a valid argument.

#### What does modus tollens mean?

: a mode of reasoning from a hypothetical proposition according to which if the consequent be denied the antecedent is denied (as, if A is true, B is true; but B is false; therefore A is false)

#### Is modus tollens a tautology?

In this sense, yes, modus ponens is a tautology. All logic rules that can be stated as sentences of propositional logic are tautologies in the same way. The fact that the sentence (P∧Q)∧P→Q is a tautology means that this rule is sound: if P and P→Q are true, so is Q. That justifies the use of the rule.

Can an invalid argument have a true conclusion?

A sound argument must have a true conclusion. TRUE: If an argument is sound, then it is valid and has all true premises. If an invalid argument has all true premises, then the conclusion must be false. FALSE: It is possible for an invalid argument to have all true premises and a true conclusion.

## What makes a sound argument?

A sound argument is one that is not only valid, but begins with premises that are actually true. The example given about toasters is valid, but not sound. However, the following argument is both valid and sound: In some states, no felons are eligible voters, that is, eligible to vote.

## What is inductive argument examples?

An example of inductive logic is, “The coin I pulled from the bag is a penny. Therefore, all the coins in the bag are pennies.” Even if all of the premises are true in a statement, inductive reasoning allows for the conclusion to be false. Here’s an example: “Harold is a grandfather.

What is fallacious reasoning?

A fallacy is the use of invalid or otherwise faulty reasoning, or “wrong moves” in the construction of an argument. A fallacious argument may be deceptive by appearing to be better than it really is. Arguments containing informal fallacies may be formally valid, but still fallacious.

### How do you know if an argument is cogent?

A cogent argument is by definition non-deductive, which means that the premises are intended to establish probable (but not conclusive) support for the conclusion. Furthermore, a cogent argument is strong, so the premises, if they were true, would succeed in providing probable support for the conclusion.

### What are the 5 elements of argument?

The Five Parts of Argument Reason; Evidence; Warrant; Acknowledgement and Response.

How do you evaluate an argument?

1. Identify the conclusion and the premises.
2. Put the argument in standard form.
3. Decide if the argument is deductive or non-deductive.
4. Determine whether the argument succeeds logically.
5. If the argument succeeds logically, assess whether the premises are true.

#### How do you have a successful argument?

9 Ways to Construct a Compelling Argument

1. Keep it simple. Keep your argument concise.
2. Be fair on your opponent.
3. Avoid other common fallacies.
5. Rest your argument on solid foundations.
7. Avoid platitudes and generalisations, and be specific.
8. Understand the opposing point of view.

#### What do you say to win an argument?

Respect Their Point Of View “Respectfully acknowledge the other person’s view point, even if you don’t agree with it,” says wellness coach Erin Stair, MD, MPH. Say things like “I see what you’re saying there,” or “That’s a good point.” They might be so thrown off that you can walk away the winner.

How do you win an argument with someone who is never wrong?

How to Win an Argument with Someone Who is Never Wrong …

1. 1 Stay Calm and Strong. Maintain your confidence if you firmly believe in your case.
2. 2 Support Claims with Evidence. Clear evidence for each point you bring up is key.
3. 3 State Facts Vs Opinions. You need all the power you can get.
4. 4 Choose Your Battles Wisely.
5. 5 Stay Away from Sarcasm.
6. 6 Consider Alternatives.
7. 7 Let It Go.

## What do you call a person who thinks they are always right?

People who always think they are totally right are either borderline personality disorder, narcissist, or both. It is their ego’s reaction to the fear of being exposed, they can’t even be honest with themselves. Tthey actually believe they are right because they filter the facts that they are willing to perceive.

## What do you call a person who disagrees with everything you say?

People who constantly contradict others can drive you to the point of insanity. Apparently, there is an official term called “oppositional confrontation style,” where the person basically disagrees with everything you say.

How do you argue effectively with a narcissist?

Here are the steps you should take:

1. Don’t argue about ‘right’ and ‘wrong’
2. Instead, try to empathise with their feelings.
3. Use ‘we’ language.
4. Don’t expect an apology.
6. Don’t take the bait yourself.
7. Remember to put yourself first.

### What is the weakness of a narcissist?

Weaknesses of the Narcissistic Leader. Despite the warm feelings their charisma can evoke, narcissists are typically not comfortable with their own emotions. They listen only for the kind of information they seek. They don’t learn easily from others.

### What should you not say to a narcissist?

8 Things Never to Say to a Narcissist

• Don’t say, “It’s not about you.”
• Don’t say, “You’re not listening.”
• Don’t say, “Ina Garten did not get her lasagna recipe from you.”
• Don’t say, “Do you think it might be your fault?”
• Don’t say, “You’re being a bully.”
• Don’t say, “Stop playing the victim.”
• Don’t say, “It’s not a competition.”
• Don’t say, “Let it go.”

Which of the following is true of a deductively valid argument?

A deductively valid argument is such that if the premises are true , its conclusion must be absolutely, positively be true.

#### Can an argument have one premise?

TRUE: A valid argument cannot have all true premises and a false conclusion. So if a valid argument does have a false conclusion, it cannot have all true premises. Thus at least one premise must be false.

#### How do you prove an argument is valid?

Valid: an argument is valid if and only if it is necessary that if all of the premises are true, then the conclusion is true; if all the premises are true, then the conclusion must be true; it is impossible that all the premises are true and the conclusion is false.

Is the argument valid?

In effect, an argument is valid if the truth of the premises logically guarantees the truth of the conclusion. An argument is valid if the premises and conclusion are related to each other in the right way so that if the premises were true, then the conclusion would have to be true as well.

## What are the twelve logical fallacies?

12 Common Logical Fallacies and How to Debunk Them

• 12 Common Logical Fallacies and How to Debunk Them.
• Appeal to Authority.
• Bandwagon Argument, or ad populum.
• The Strawman.
• Circular Reasoning.
• The Genetic Fallacy.
• Anecdotal Evidence.

## What is an Enthymeme in logic?

Enthymeme, in syllogistic, or traditional, logic, name of a syllogistic argument that is incompletely stated. In the argument “All insects have six legs; therefore, all wasps have six legs,” the minor premise, “All wasps are insects,” is suppressed.

Which is an example of an inductive argument?

An example of inductive logic is, “The coin I pulled from the bag is a penny. Therefore, all the coins in the bag are pennies.” Even if all of the premises are true in a statement, inductive reasoning allows for the conclusion to be false.

### Is hence a conclusion indicator?

A conclusion indicator is a word or phrase that indicates that the statement it’s attached to is a conclusion. Of the indicators we’ve seen so far, “thus,” “so,” and “hence” are also conclusion indicators, as can be verified in any reliable dictionary.

### How many different types of Enthymemes are there?

6.5 Different Types

What is the meaning of Enthymeme?

enthymeme in American English (ˈɛnθɪˌmim ) Logic. a syllogism in which one of the premises or the conclusion is not expressed but implied.

#### What is an Enthymeme thesis?

Page 1. Thesis as Enthymeme. ENTHYMEME: The relationship between reason and conclusion. The thesis I have been asking you to write is an enthymeme, because it asks you to make a clear connection between your assertion (claim) and the reasons you use to support that assertion. The pattern can be developed in two ways.

#### How do you write an Enthymeme?

There is no such thing as “A, therefore B” in logic. Instead, the basic structure of a logical syllogism always includes at least three parts: “A and B, therefore C.” If you see a place within your argument where you make a deduction from a single premise (“A, therefore B”), you’ll know you’ve got an enthymeme.